Sample research paper about dengue. Essays on Dengue Fever. Free Examples of Research Paper Topics, Titles GradesFixer

In the cases where municipalities were connected by more than one modal, this was taken into account by including all corresponding edges. Using this definition, the shortest path between any pair is related to the conditional probability of individuals moving through a particular path between that pair. There are several measures of node centrality, the literature being rich with proposals for both weighted and unweighted networks [ 36 ]. Since no information is available on who infected whom, the primary cases are inferred from the generation interval of dengue, that is, primary cases are those that could be the source of transmission for the current cases given the time between the onset of their disease symptoms. Dengue cases in Brazilian states and airline flow to the state of Acre. Here, we measured vulnerability as the expected probability of dengue importation from other Brazilian states into Acre, by air transportation. This mechanism serves as a driver for the re- introduction of pathogens throughout the national territory.

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Since research paper designer babies information is available on who infected whom, the primary cases are inferred from the generation interval of dengue, that is, primary cases are those that could sample research paper about dengue the source of transmission for the current cases given the time between the onset of their disease symptoms.

As discussed in the methods section, the probability of case importation to Acre is a combination of both the number of travelers and dengue activity.

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There are several measures of node centrality, the literature being rich with proposals for both weighted and unweighted networks [ 36 ]. The effective reproductive number Rt was calculated weekly for each city, from to The left panel shows investigator cover letter for cv municipalities of the state of Acre.

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In this network, each municipality is represented by a node while edges represent the average daily flow of individuals between pairs. Finally, the weighted centrality of node i, Cw i is the inverse of the sum over dw i, j from i to every other node in the network, analogous to Eq Establishment of dengue transmission in the Acrean cities The earliest evidence of the onset of disease establishment is the occurrence of autochthonous cases, which are ascertained based on investigations of the travel history of the patients.

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Distance in kilometers from Rio Branco Dk: Dengue reporting is mandatory in Brazil, but most cases are defined using clinical-epidemiological criteria only. Here, evidence of transmission is indirectly obtained from the notification data via the calculation of the effective reproductive number, Rt.

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This dataset contains information on the origin-destination for passengers on direct flights with or without stoppage. While the descriptors for the mobility network are static since we only have the flow of individuals for the year ofthe analysis of the transportation network status is dynamic since there were considerable interventions such as construction and paving of roadways during the period of study.

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gp essay questions 2019 In principle, each pair of nodes can have more than one shortest path, that is, more than one way of going from the origin node to the destination one with the same number of connected edges.

To describe the Acrean transportation system, data regarding the availability and status of roads, waterways, and airways was obtained from the Ministry of Transport http: In the case of connections where both terrestrial and pluvial routes were available between a pair of nodes, we used the former since it is the most frequently used.

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The population count in rural and urban areas per municipality in Acre, in andas well as information on the proportion of households with access to public services and other demographic variables were obtained from [ 25 ]. We searched the available information to identify the year in which the presence of the mosquito was confirmed for the first time in each municipality.

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  • In this network, the edges were considered as unweighted for most of the centrality metrics defined below.
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A period of 3 weeks was chosen because it represents one generation of dengue transmission. The accumulated number of cases in each state during the period of study is shown in Fig 1.

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Betweenness centrality B and Bw: Moreover, dengue receptivity has been linked to unplanned urbanization, fast population growth, poor infrastructure as lack of urban services and effective mosquito control, and globalization [ 49 ]. Definition of dengue epidemiological year.

Data Dengue national data. In this context, we analyzed Brazilian airline grid to estimate passenger flow between Brazilian states and how this potential risk for the spreading of dengue to Acre varied since the year As defined in [ 11 ], the effective distance between any pair of nodes can be obtained through the following steps: Since dengue reaches higher activity levels during the summer Dec to Marchit is more convenient to define the epidemiological year as the period between July of a sample research paper about dengue and June of the next year, as opposed to the standard calendar year.

Combining this information, the monthly case importation probability pij,m can be estimated as 1 Following the same rationale, the yearly probability of dengue importation, Pij,s, at dengue epidemiological year s, can be estimated by aggregating over all months of the corresponding epidemiological year, that is sample cover letter for scholarship doc This construction allows us to provide a ranking of states by their probability of exporting a dengue-infected individual to Acre, that is, the most probable sources of case importation at any given epidemiological year.

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We computed an unweighted betweenness measurement B for each node based on the unweighted shortest path, that is, only based on the vicinity of cities in the structural transportation network.

Say we have ki,m dengue cases reported in state i in month m.

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The weighted shortest path distance, dw i, jis then the connected path with the lowest sum over the weighted distance between each pair on that path. Dengue municipal data.